A tunnel is an underground passageway, dug through the surrounding soil/earth/rock and enclosed except for entrance and exit, commonly at each end. A pipeline is not a tunnel, though some recent tunnels have used immersed tube construction techniques rather than traditional tunnel boring methods.
A. Abutment - In coal mining, (1) the weight of the rocks above a narrow roadway is transferred to the solid coal along the sides, which act as abutments of the arch of strata spanning the roadway; and (2) the weight of the rocks over a longwall face is transferred to the front abutment, that is, the solid coal ahead of the face and the back abutment, that is, the settled packs behind the face.
Back — The roof or upper part in any underground mining cavity. Backfill — Mine waste or rock used to support the roof after coal removal. Barren — Said of rock or vein material containing no minerals of value, and of strata without coal, or containing coal in seams too thin to be workable.
Hurriers were as vital to the operation of a colliery as were the colliers. They were invariably children or women and as in textiles and many other trades in the industrial revolution, coal mining could not have developed without the exploitation of this source of labour power.
Introduction. Blasting is the dominant method of breaking rock for the purposes of mining. When used underground, blasting is part of a batch process.
The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in Europe and the US, in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840. This transition included going from hand production methods to machines, new chemical manufacturing and iron production processes, the increasing use of steam power, the development of machine tools and the rise of the factory system.
C-Survey, Mining, Mapping Terms and Definitions Elliott Surveying- New Mexico- 505-280-6729 - [email protected]/A CODE- (GPS)- A binary code known by Civilian/Access.
You can also check the Durham Mining Museum and Ian Winstanley's Site. I have also used 'A Pit Terminology - Glossary Used in Coal Mining' a publication compiled by William Stukeley Gresley, dated 1883 and given to me by Philip Wyles.
The major change in the metal industries during the era of the Industrial Revolution was the replacement of organic fuels, based on wood, with fossil fuel, based on coal.
3. Simulations and roleplaying games as a forecasting method (second part). Roleplaying and war-games are a widely used method for forecasting decisions by two or more parties in a conflict.
KAMY series of Roadheaders offers the best cutting performance in a wide range of rock formations. Equipped with geometrically optimized transverse or longitudinal cutter heads, these flexible machines can be used to excavate subway tunnels, road tunnels, railway tunnels and water tunnels without using explosives.